In Health Tips On 16 January 2017
Diabetes or High Blood Sugar is a condition in which the body is not able to utilize glucose completely. It occurs due to complete absence, deficiency or inefficiency of Insulin- a hormone necessary to channelize glucose into our bloodstream. Today, the cases of Diabetes are increasing at a rapid pace. According to a report published by the American Diabetes Association, about 9.3% of U.S population has Diabetes. Out of these, approximately 1.25 million American children and adults have Type 1 Diabetes. With the advancement in medical science, a number of medications are now available that help one maintains normal blood glucose levels. Unfortunately, no complete cure for the disease has yet been found. If Diabetes is left untreated or poorly controlled, it may affect each and every organ of your body and give rise to complications like kidney disease, high blood pressure, nerve damage, blindness, blood vessel damage, heart disease, stroke, infection, limb amputation, coma and even death. Therefore, efforts must be made by the individual himself to control his blood sugar levels and keep it within the normal limits. Nature has gifted us certain foods that help in fighting Diabetes naturally. These foods contain certain elements which aid in lowering blood glucose levels and if consumed in a proper way these are not only safe as compared to the conventional medicines but are also equally effective. A number of clinical studies conducted in the recent years have also shown potential links between the natural compounds present in certain foods and improved blood glucose levels. Some of these foods along with their method of consumption have been listed as under: Blackberry: Blackberries are rich in antioxidants and fiber. This fruit also contains Jamboline %u2013 a glucoside that prevents the conversion of starch into sugar. Clinical Research has shown that this fruit can significantly lower blood glucose levels and prevent sharp insulin spikes. 1-2 teaspoon of powdered blackberry seeds taken twice daily with water is extremely helpful in reducing blood glucose levels. Fenugreek Seeds: This is one of the most effective natural remedies for diabetes. Fenugreek seeds are rich in soluble fiber and contain an alkaloid trigonelline that helps to lower blood glucose levels. Recent studies have suggested that adding 100grams of fenugreek powder in the daily diet of type 1 diabetics reduces their fasting blood glucose levels and improves glucose tolerance. On the other hand, incorporating 15 grams of fenugreek powder in the daily diet of type 2 diabetics prevents a sharp rise in postprandial blood glucose. Take 1-2 teaspoon of fenugreek seeds and soak them overnight in water. Next morning, consume these seeds and water empty stomach. Gooseberry: Gooseberry or amla is one of the richest sources of antioxidant, Vitamin C. It stimulates the pancreas to secrete more insulin, thereby lowering the blood sugar levels. 1 tablespoon of gooseberry juice mixed with a cup of Bitter gourd juice is considered to be very effective in controlling Diabetes. If fresh gooseberry is not available, then 1 tablespoon of gooseberry powder can be taken with a glass of water. Curry Leaves: Curry leaves contain minerals like copper, iron, zinc which plays a very important role in keeping blood glucose levels under control. According to a study published in the Journal of Plant Food and Nutrition, curry leaves not only help to lower the blood glucose levels immediately but also controls it for a few days after consumption. 10-12 fresh curry leaves / 1 tablespoon of curry leaf powder taken daily along with meals is very effective in reducing blood sugar levels. Purslane Seeds: These seeds contain certain elements that increase body%u2019s production of insulin by stimulating the pancreatic beta cells, which in turn lowers the blood glucose levels. 1 teaspoon of Purslane seeds taken regularly with a ? cup of water for 2 months has a very beneficial effect on Diabetes. Mango Leaves: While Mango fruit is not meant for the Diabetics, recent studies have shown that the aqueous extract of Mango Leaves significantly lowers the blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic individuals. The hypoglycemic effect of Mango leaves is due to the presence of some biologically active compounds that aid in the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. Take 10-15 Mango leaves and soak them overnight in a glass of water. Drink this water next morning on an empty stomach at least 1 hour before the breakfast. Alternatively, these leaves can also dry, powdered and stored in a container. ? teaspoon of dried mango leaf powder taken twice a day, preferably before lunch and Dinner, is very effective in controlling Diabetes by regulating insulin levels in the blood. Flaxseeds: Flaxseeds have a low glycemic Index and contain both soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber helps to lower and stabilize blood sugar levels by slowing down the absorption of glucose from the small intestine. Studies have shown that a daily consumption of 10 grams of flaxseed for 2 months reduces the blood sugar level by almost 28%. 1-2 Tablespoon of flaxseed powder taken early morning on an empty stomach is helpful in lowering and stabilizing blood glucose levels. Alternatively, this powder can also be added to soups, gravies, breakfast cereals, flour etc. Green Tea: The nutritional components of Green Tea helps in managing both type 1 and type 2 Diabetes. Green Tea has a high polyphenol content which has a strong antioxidant that helps in reducing the blood sugar levels. Researchers have shown that people who drink more cups of green tea per day have better results than those who drink just a few. Try to include 2 or more cups of green tea in your daily routine. Neem Leaves (Margosa): Neem leaves have been used for centuries to treat Diabetes. These leaves contain certain chemicals that stimulate insulin production in the beta cells of the pancreas. In addition to this, they also increase the blood circulation by dilating the blood vessels, thereby decreasing the risks of long-term complications of Diabetes like limb amputation. Studies indicate that regular intake of neem leaf extract reduces the need for insulin by 20-50%. Chewing 8-10 neem leaves daily in the morning helps to lower blood glucose levels. Alternatively, take a handful of neem leaves, crush them to extract the juice. Take one tablespoon of this juice early morning on an empty stomach. Papaya Leaves: Papaya leaves increase the efficiency of glucose uptake by the cells. Papaya leaf supplementation decreases the level of enzymes Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase, the biomarkers of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the Papaya leaf help in faster wound healing of Diabetic patients and reduce the chances of long-term complications of Diabetes. Papaya leaves are best consumed in the form of tea. Boil 10 Papaya leaves in 8 cups of water. Continue boiling till the water is reduced to half its original quantity. Cool, and consume in small doses throughout the day. Bittergourd: Bitter gourd contain compounds that have a hypoglycemic effect. 1 glass of bitter gourd juice taken empty stomach early morning has proven to be very effective in bringing down blood sugar levels. To extract the bitter gourd juice, de-seed 4-5 bitter gourds and extract the juice with a juicer. Drink this juice for at least 2 months.Alternatively, if the fresh bitter gourds are not available you can boil a few pieces of dried bitter gourd in a cup of water. Have this tea at least twice a day for lowering your blood sugar levels. Aloe Vera: Aloe Vera contains a hypoglycemic factor, phytosterol and has proven to be useful in lowering the blood glucose levels in both Insulin Dependent and Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus patients. 1 tablespoon of aloe vera gel mixed with a ? teaspoon each of turmeric and bay leaf powder taken twice a day before lunch and dinner helps to lower blood glucose levels. Cinnamon: Cinnamon contains certain bioactive compounds that can help fight and prevent Diabetes. Cinnamon also increases the gastric emptying time, thus preventing a sharp rise in postprandial blood sugar levels. A ? teaspoon of cinnamon taken daily before meals is very effective in keeping blood sugar levels under control. Alternatively, Cinnamon powder can also be added to milk, coffee, tea or sprinkled on the salads and other dishes and consumed. Lady Finger: Lady Finger is an excellent remedy for Diabetes. It is rich in magnesium, potassium, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin K and soluble fiber. Soluble fiber helps in lowering the blood sugar levels by slowing down the absorption of glucose from the intestine. Its seeds contain alpha-glucosidase inhibitors that prevent the conversion of starch into glucose. Take 2 lady fingers and slit them from the bottom towards the stalk. Do not separate the two pieces; let them be joined at the top. Put them in a glass of water in the evening and leave it at room temperature during the night. Next morning, mash the lady fingers in the water, strain and drink the water as the first thing in the morning. Do not eat or drink anything for 30 minutes after taking this water. Do it on a regular basis and you will notice a remarkable reduction in your blood sugar levels in 2 weeks. Apple Cider Vinegar: Apple cider vinegar contains some biologically active compounds that help in lowering postprandial blood sugar levels. Mix a pinch of salt and 2 tablespoons of Apple Cider Vinegar in a glass of water. Take this regularly before every large meal. Alfa-Alfa: This is one of the ancient herbal remedies for controlling Diabetes. Alfa Alfa is rich in vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. 1 teaspoon of crushed alfa alfa seeds taken with or before meals helps in lowering and stabilizing blood sugar levels. Ginger: Recent studies suggest that ginger contains compounds that not only increase insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes, but gingerols present in this spice also help increase glucose absorption even in the absence of insulin, thereby achieving a better control of blood glucose levels. Add ginger to your tea or meals to control diabetes. However, best results are obtained if 1teaspoon of ginger juice is taken in raw form at any time during the day. Basil Leaves: Basil leaves contain antioxidants and essential oils that help in lowering the blood sugar levels by stimulating the release of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells. Research has shown that a regular consumption of 2.5 grams of Basil leaves for 4 weeks reduces the fasting blood sugar levels by 17.6% and postprandial by 7.3%. To obtain maximum benefit these leaves must be consumed early morning on an empty stomach. Chew 4-5 basil leaves or crush and extract 2 tablespoons of basil leaf juice and drink on an empty stomach in the morning. Alternatively, take 5 neem leaves and 5 basil leaves, crush them to a fine paste and consume it early morning on an empty stomach. Bilberry Leaves Recent studies published by %u2018Journal of Nutrition%u2019 state that Bilberry leaves contain a high amount of anthocyanidin, an antioxidant that helps in lowering blood sugar levels by enhancing the action of various proteins involved in glucose transportation and fat metabolism. Crush bilberry leaves and consumes 100 grams of this extract on an empty stomach. Alternatively, boil a handful of bilberry leaves in 4-5 cups of water. Simmer and leave it for half an hour. Cool and drink at least 2 cups of this tea a day to lower blood sugar levels. Drumstick Leaves (Moringa): Drumstick Leaves are rich in photochemical and are very effective in lowering Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels (HbA1c). The high fiber content of the leaves increases the satiety and helps in slowing the breakdown of food and lowering of blood glucose levels. Take a few drumstick leaves and grind them to a fine paste with a little water. Strain to extract the juice. Drinking a ? cup of this juice every morning helps lowering blood sugar levels. Guava Leaves: Guava leaf contains quercetin - a flavanoid that reduces the activity of enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which in turn reduces the blood sugar levels. Boil 2-3 guava leaves in 2 cups of water for 15 minutes, cool and take it with meals for at least 3 months to see a remarkable decrease in your blood sugar levels. Garlic: Garlic contains allicin, allyl propyl disulfide and S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide that increase the amount of insulin released in the body and regulate blood sugar levels.Studies suggest that garlic is very effective in increasing one%u2019s insulin content in the body and it also protects the heart from diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy. Crush 2 medium size pods of garlic and eat it raw on an empty stomach as the first thing in the morning. Else you can also add it to your meals. But eating garlic in raw form has been found to be more effective in managing diabetes. The above-mentioned remedies will only be effective if one follows a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise, no alcohol, high fiber diet and restricts his intake of simple carbohydrates.
In Health Tips On 18 January 2017
Belly fat is the toughest fat of your body to remove and most people wrestle hard to burn it off. Getting rid of stomach fat is imperative as it not only hampers your confidence but also your health. Belly fat can easily be estimated by measuring the circumference around your waist using a simple measuring tape. For Indians, a waist circumference of 90cm in men and 89 cm in women is considered normal. Anything above this mark is considered as abdominal obesity. People with abdominal obesity are at a higher risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and fatty liver disease. Even though it is not easy but with patience, diet, and exercise one can easily get rid of this excess fat. Here are a few strategies that will surely help you achieve a flat belly. Load up on Protein: Protein is one of the most important nutrients in terms of weight loss. It helps curb your appetite and boosts up your metabolism. A diet high in protein not only helps you to lose weight but also prevents you from regaining it. Studies have also shown that the quantity and quality of protein consumed are inversely related to belly fat. People who eat higher amounts of good quality protein have a much less belly fat than others who eat less protein. If you are aiming for a flatter stomach then increase your intake of high protein foods like egg, fish, chicken, soybeans, legumes, and dairy. Try to include some of these in each of your meals. Cut down on Carbohydrates: Restricting a number of carbohydrates can be very beneficial for losing weight as well as abdominal fat. Several studies have suggested that a diet low on carbohydrates is extremely effective in getting rid of fat in the belly area. This is because a low carbohydrate diet puts our body on ketosis which kills our appetite and our body starts burning fat for energy. This brings about weight and fat loss. So if you trying to lose your belly fat, restrict your carbohydrate intake to 50grams/day. Eat foods rich in Soluble Fiber: Fiber is the indigestible part of plant material. It is of two types- soluble and insoluble. Both the types are not equally effective when it comes to weight loss. To lose weight one must eat a lot of soluble fiber.Soluble fiber binds with water to form a thick gel that slows down the movement of food as it passes through the gut. This results in a prolonged feeling of fullness and hence reduced appetite. Several studies have suggested that fiber especially soluble fiber are very effective in bringing about weight and fat loss. One such study published in the Journal of Obesity revealed that an increase in soluble fiber intake by 10grams per day brings about a reduction in belly fat by 3.7%. Excellent sources of soluble fiber include oats, legumes, flax seeds, fresh fruits, and vegetables. Avoid Sugary Beverages: Sugary beverages are worse than sugar-sweetened drinks when it comes to weight loss. This is because our body does not metabolize liquid calories the same way it does solid ones. Sugary beverages like aerated drinks, soda etc are loaded with liquid fructose that can make you gain abdominal fat. Stay away from these sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce your belly fat. Say no to Alcohol: Alcohol may have some health benefits but an excess of it is detrimental to your health. Research suggests that people who drink alcohol have more belly fat than those who do not drink. Exercise: Diet without exercise and exercise without diet is of no use when it comes to weight loss. Engage yourself in simple aerobic exercises like walking, swimming, running etc. These exercises are not only effective in reducing belly fat and weight but are also equally effective in maintaining weight and shape after weight loss.
In Health Tips On 18 January 2017
Getting into shape can be really very difficult. With the changing lifestyle and more and more women going out to work it makes it even more difficult for them to prepare a separate meal for themselves or any other member of the family. At this time meal replacement shakes offer a quick, convenient and effortless alternative to regular meals. They also offer a decent alternative to people who lack skills or interest in cooking. These are some of the many reasons why grocery or medical stores now days are stocking up more and more meal replacement shakes. The basic concept behind these shakes is to replace one or two meals in a day so as to cut down the possibilities of overeating. Meal replacement shakes can be a good alternative for beginners who want to lose weight fast but in order to lose weight and to maintain it in the long run one also needs to learn how to eat sensibly otherwise he will end up gaining weight over a period of time. These shakes also offer a decent choice to individuals who consistently miss breakfast. Several studies have reported that eating a high protein breakfast fosters weight control. These shakes are high in protein that helps curb our appetite. Also, our body needs more calories to metabolize protein compared to carbohydrates that help in weight loss. Even though meal replacement shakes provide a reasonable amount of nutrition they should not be taken as a substitute for the whole diet. Also, these shakes do not contain everything when it comes to a healthy diet. They lack the goodness of phytonutrients present in fresh fruits and vegetables. These phytonutrients although considered as non-essential nutrients if included in diet offer significant health benefits. They help to enhance our immunity, have an anti-aging effect, repair cellular or DNA damage caused by toxic substances, and detoxify carcinogens. Several studies published in various journals have reported that a diet rich in phytonutrients help in preventing various diseases like cancer and heart disease. At the same time, meal replacement shakes also do not address the social aspect of eating. One cannot have these shakes all the time and anywhere, nor he can depend on them for a lifetime. People using these shakes have a hard time eating out. My Verdict Meal replacement shakes can be a good alternative for starters who want to lose weight fast. But since one cannot depend on them for a lifetime as it can be very tiresome and boring, one must learn to cultivate in themselves healthy eating behavior. This will not only help them to lose or control their weight over a long term but will also not deprive them of the basic pleasure of eating out with family and friends. In addition to this, a healthy diet blessed with the goodness of fruits and vegetables will provide you with plenty of antioxidants and phytonutrients which are not otherwise present in these lab made formulas that will help you stay fit and free from diseases.
In Health Tips On 21 January 2017
You must be tired of hearing it over and over again that "breakfast is the most important meal of the day". And over the years there has been countless research that also proves this claim. But why is it so important. Let's find out... IMPROVES OVERALL HEALTH Many people believe that by skipping breakfast, they can actually save calories, which they can use throughout the day when they feel hungry. This is, in fact, is not true. A healthy power packed breakfast in the morning helps in regulating the blood glucose levels and also aids in weight loss by suppressing the hunger craving later in the day. LOWERS THE RISK OF HEART DISEASE Eating breakfast has also been associated with the lowered risk of heart disease. One such Harvard University Study on men aged 45-82 years found that the risk of heart disease is 27% higher in men who skip breakfast. The study also found that skipping breakfast leads to an increased risk of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity and other health problems that act as a precursor for heart disease. INCREASES THE RISK OF DIABETES Skipping breakfast increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in women, according to a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. This is attributed to the fact that regular skipping of breakfast leads to the development of chronic insulin resistance which is a major risk factor for Diabetes. IMPROVES MEMORY Eating breakfast helps improve cognitive functions. One such study on 319 adolescents (aged 13-20 years) found that "high energy intake from breakfast had a beneficial effect on immediate recall in short-term memory. Many other similar studies published in the Journal of American Dietetic Association have also reported that children who eat breakfast have better memory, test grades, and school attendance. BOOSTS CONCENTRATION Eating breakfast can help improve your alertness throughout the day. One study on middle school children found that children who ate breakfast every day had a better concentration that children who consumed breakfast only sometimes or never. It won't takes a fortnight - will only take a few more minutes of yours in the morning but if you want to improve your health, memory, and concentration start eating a healthy breakfast every morning. References: Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 May;105(5):743-60; Effects of breakfast-size on short-term memory, concentration, mood and blood glucoseJournal of Adolescent Health Volume 12, Issue 1, January 1991, Pages 53-57 Prospective Study of Breakfast Eating and Incident Coronary heart Disease in a cohort of male US health professionals. Circulation.2103;128:337-343 Association between Eating Patterns and Obesity in a Free-living US Adult Population.Am J Epidemiol (2003) 158 (1): 85-92. Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in older women: breakfast consumption and eating frequencyAm J Clin Nutr
In Health Tips On 29 January 2017
Polycystic ovarian syndrome or PCOS is a hormonal disorder that affects 5-10% women of reproductive age. The true cause of PCOS is not known but experts believe it is due to the excess production of androgens-the male sex hormone. Although all women produce some amount of androgens but an excess of it causes irregular or prolonged bleeding, infertility, and abnormal body and facial hair growth. It is also seen that women with PCOS are usually obese or overweight and are advised by health experts to lose weight in order to improve their symptoms. Studies have shown that even a drop of 10% of body weight helps to relieve some of the symptoms of PCOS and this where their fight begins. Women with PCOS battle hard and go to all extremes to lose weight but nothing works for them. Although it is not impossible to reduce weight with PCOS but it requires actions plan different from the normal weight loss plan. What makes it so difficult to lose weight with PCOS? Let's have a look: INSULIN RESISTANCE Insulin is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas and is said to play an important role in weight control. Insulin is responsible for channelizing glucose into the muscles. In case sugar is more than that required by the body it is involved in a process that helps convert and store is as fat to be utilized later when needed. In PCOS these cells somehow dysfunction and release more insulin than required. High insulin levels signal the body that sugar is in abundance. As a result, the body starts storing this sugar as fat instead of using it as a fuel. Therefore, controlling the insulin levels is the biggest key to controlling weight in PCOS. SLOW METABOLISM It is seen that women with PCOS have a slower metabolic rate. This means they burn fewer calories for the same amount of work compared to others with a normal metabolic rate. Slower metabolism in PCOS is primarily due to the amount of body fat these women tend to carry. Several studies have proved that metabolic rate and the body fat content are inversely related i.e. higher the body fat, lower will be the metabolic rate. APPETITE CONTROL A number of hormones like leptin, cholecystokinin play a role in hunger and appetite control. These hormones signal the brain when to stop eating. In PCOS, women have altered signals which make them feel constantly hungry even after having sufficient calories. This leads to overeating and binge eating making them gain weight instead of losing it. With patience, efforts and positive outlook nothing is impossible. With a wise and proper selection of food to control insulin levels, increase metabolism and manipulate hunger hormones you call still achieve what seems to be impossible.
In Health Tips On 09 February 2017
I often receive emails, phone calls and messages from thyroid overweight patients who have the same frustrating concern I am a thyroid patient on medications and my thyroid is under control now but still, I am unable to lose any weight. What can I do?? Well...it can be difficult and sometimes it may seem impossible to lose weight with hypothyroidism but with patience and correct approach, it is possible. Here are some of the important tips I am sharing based on my personal clinical experience with clients that will help you in losing your stubborn weight. INCREASE YOUR METABOLISM People with hypothyroidism have a sluggish metabolism. That means they burn fewer calories for the same amount of food consumed compared to other people of the same height and weight. No, this does not imply that you need to reduce your food intake. If you do so your metabolism will slow down even further, making it even more difficult for you to lose weight. So what can be done?? The best approach is to first focus on the ways you can increase your metabolism and there are numerous ways that can help you in achieving this goal. Let's have a look at some of them Exercise: A key way to kick start your metabolism is through exercise. Exercise not only helps you to burn excess calories but also improves other aspects of health that even proper nutrition can't provide- mobility and strength. You don't have to worry about straining yourself through high-intensity workouts. Research suggests that simple low-intensity workouts like regular brisk walk are equally effective. Green Tea: Drinking green tea on a regular basis is one of the easiest ways to boost up your metabolism. A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that green tea increases the metabolic rate by 4% over a 24 hour period. CUT BACK ON REFINED CARBOHYDRATES AND ADDED SUGARS A moderate to low carb diet that focuses on complex carbohydrates (like whole grains) and avoiding simple sugars is an effective strategy for weight loss. This can be easily done by avoiding the junk food like aerated drinks, pasta, cakes etc that are not only unhealthy but also unnecessary. Also eating complex carbohydrates and avoiding simple sugars help reduce production of cytokines- tiny proteins that cause inflammation in the body. INCREASE INTAKE OF SELENIUM AND ZINC Selenium and zinc are the two micronutrients that are involved in thyroid function. Hence it is important that your diet contains adequate amounts of these two nutrients to optimize thyroid hormone production and metabolism. Selenium: Selenium is an essential mineral that plays a significant role in the production of Thyroid hormone and regulating the Thyroid Hormonal Levels. It also helps the body to recycle iodine. For all the above-mentioned reasons it is very important to include a variety of selenium rich foods in your daily diet. Foods like tuna, eggs, bran, legumes, whole wheat, chicken, beef are all rich in selenium and must be included in some form in each of your meals. Zinc: Zinc is crucial for the regulation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). Hence, it must also form an integral part of your daily diet. Sources of zinc include nuts, legumes, beef, chicken, milk, yogurt, fish. DRINK PLENTY OF WATER When the body is dehydrated our cellular functions slows down. Proper hydration helps your metabolism to work more efficiently. In addition to this, it also helps reduce appetite, eliminate water retention, bloating and aids the body to get rid of toxins. Above the general recommendation of 8 glasses of water per day, it is recommended to drink another 8 glasses of water for every 10 kg weight you want to lose. TRY THE GLUTEN-FREE DIET This diet is only recommended if you consistently follow the above steps but are still overweight. Gluten is high in goitrogens that interfere with the iodine uptake by the thyroid gland and thereby suppress thyroid function. Several studies have shown a strong association between thyroid and gluten intolerance. I have also seen excellent weight loss results in my hypothyroid patients when they cut off gluten from their diet. References: Autoimmune thyroid disorders and coeliac disease. Eur J Endocrinol February 1, 1994130 137-140 Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Mar 3;162(5):325-34. doi: 10.7326/M14-1189. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr December 1999 vol. 70 no. 6 1040-1045 The impact of iron and selenium deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: biochemistry and relevance to public health. Thyroid. 2002 Oct;12(10):867-78.